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  • 教育部公布2003年度出国留学工作情况简介
  • 教育部公布2003年度出国留学工作情况

    Unit Four Studying Abroad
    Background information
    For many young people                                                            there is nothing more
        fascinating than studying
        abroad. There are millions of
        people, young and old,
        studying abroad. It was officially
        reported that from 1978 to 2003,
       700,200 Chinese went abroad and
    studied in different foreign countries.
    教育部公布2003年度出国留学工作情况 (2004年2月16日)
    相关链接:2004年2月16日教育部举办2003年度出国留学工作情况发布会
    2月16日,教育部公布2003年度留学人员情况统计结果。自1978年至2003年底,我国出国留学人员总数达70.02万人,留学回国人员达17.28万人。目前仍在外的52.74万留学人员中,共有35.66万人仍在国外进行学习、合作研究、学术访问等。   2003年度,我国各类出国留学人员总数为11.73万人,其中国家公派3002人,单位公派5144人,自费留学10.92万人。由于上半年发生SARS疫情,联系国外学校、办理签证等受到影响,另外,教育部加强了对留学中介的监管,去年发布了13个留学预警,克服了一些人的留学盲目性,因此,2003年度出国留学总人数比2002年降低了6.3%,其中自费出国留学人数降低了6.8%,国家公派与单位公派的出国留学人数基本持平。

    Do you plan to study abroad? What are your reasons for studying? What would be the problems you think you might have if you should study abroad?
    Listen to a passage and answer the following questions:
    1. What are their reasons for studying in America?
    2. What are the problems the foreign students must cope with when they study in America?


    Detailed study of the text
    1. Departure
    1) the act of going away from somewhere
    take one’s departure出发,离开
    arrivals and departures of all the fights各次航班的到达和起飞时间
    one’s departure for home动身回家
    a new departure 新起点,新发展,新政策,新方针
    我们定于下周启程。
    Our departure is scheduled for next week.
    这个发现是物理学上的一个新起点。
    The discovery is a new departure in physics.
    2) (C, U) action different from (what is usual or expected)


    departure from违反,违背
    a departure from custom/discipline/policy违反习俗/纪律/政策
    他的新作与他以前写的任何作品都不相同。
    His new work is a departure from anything he wrote before.
    depart v.
    2. routine adj. / n.
    routine flight   routine work   routine care例行维修   routine medical examination例行体检routine method例行程序  
    break the routine打破常规   follow the (old) routine墨守成规   perform the routine例行公事,履行常规   classroom routine课堂教学程序
    问这些问题只是一种例行的手续。


    These questions are asked as a matter of routine.
    routinely  ad. 日常  routinist  n. 机械化的人
      routinism  n. 千篇一律
    3. abroad  ad. 1)  in or to a foreign country or countries; away from one’s own country
    2) being spread widely
    letters for abroad 寄往国外的信/ letters from abroad国外来信 /return from abroad/ at home and abroad国内外
    他们定期在国内外演出。
    They perform regularly both at home and abroad.
    他经常到国外出差。
    He always goes abroad on business.
    It is abroad that she plans to leave the company.
    她要离开公司的消息已传开了。

    4. host (L.5) & (28)
    A host country or organization provides the facilities for an event, or gives people from another country a place to live.
    In 1924 Hawaii was host to a water conservation conference.1924年夏威夷担任了一次节水会议的东道主。/主办了…
    北京将主办2008年奥运会。
    Beijing will be host to the Olympic Games in 2008.
    Beijing will host the Olympic Games in the year of 2008.
    2)       Our host for tonight’s program is Zhu Jun.
    3)       The unselfish man has hosts of friends.
    4)       He has received a host of love letters after the film in which he acted as the first hero was published.
    3), 4) : great number


    a host family (L.19)     Host family is the family that provides “board and room”, food etc, for overseas visitors or students.
    甚至那些计划在美国学习两个学期的中学课程的学生也难以找到接待家庭。
    plan on   aim for, prepare 
    have difficulty (in) doing sth.  meet setback when doing sth.
    5.         translate the last sentence of paragraph 3.
    在每个学期结束时,只要学生能通过考试,美国政府就颁发给他们证书,而巴西是承认这些证书的。
    authority  n.   1) (usu. pl.) person or group having the power to give orders or take action.
    local authorities 地方当局  education authorities教育当局
    2) a person with special knowledge
      Example:   an academic authority学术权威

    Bei Yuming is a famous international authority on architecture.  
    3)power to give orders and make others obey
    Example:  Only the general manager has the authority to dismiss workers.
    你无权管我。
    You have no authority over me.
    6. on: ad. Further in space or time, forward
    If you walk on, you’ll come to the railway station.
    If any letters come, shall I send them on to your new address?我是否按你的新地址转给你?
    It’s time to move on.该继续往前走了。


    7. Very few arrive in the country with all the details worked out.(L.20)
    When the word “few” is used as a subject, the verb after it should have plural form. The structure “with all the details worked out ” is the adverbial of the sentence. Because details are worked out according to the text, the structure “with +noun + past participle of verb” is applied.
    把所有的细节列出来
    work out all the details
    一项仔细拟订的计划
    a carefully worked-out plan


    8. distinguish the two words: overseas and abroad
    overseas  a.    (at, to, from, etc. places or countries ) across the sea, foreign
    Examples: A lot of overseas students come to China to study her culture.
               During the period of the Culture of Revolution, overseas relationships would bring us many troubles.
    ad.    across the sea, abroad
           Example: Many more students study oversea for getting more opportunities.
       The word “abroad” can only be used as a adverb.


     9. economize (on) vi.节约,节省 
    Examples: They have to economize because they have little money left.
    If an object follows the verb “economize”, we have to use the preposition “on”.
    We have to economize on manpower and material resources.
    People are asked by the government to economize on water.
    10. “She hit the target”.
    The sentence can be paraphrase as she succeeded, or she did the right thing and got a satisfied result.
    Examples:  His teacher hit the target when she said that he was lazy….说中了要害。
    He hit the target when the girl agreed to be his wife.
    他达到了目的,….

     

    11. (the majority being Christian)
    Notice that the structure “the majority being Christian” is a non-finite clause, which can be paraphrased as “ and the majority of Americans are Christian”. This structure can be used to express different meanings, such as an after-thought, reason, time,attending condition, etc.
    The purse (its contents being valuable) has not been found, so we went to the police. (= Because the purse had not been found, with valuable items inside…)
    The discussion (the subject being important) was completed, and the chairman declared the meeting closed. (= When the discussion was completed, which was on private subjects…)

    12. In Paragraph 6, paraphrase the meaning of “cover” , and make sentences with the word.
        cover  vt.  pay for, ( of money) be enough for sth or doing sth.
                   Examples: The amount of insurance can nearly cover the loss in the fire.(弥补)
                            The young couple has to economize, or their money cannot cover the expenses of the second half of this month.
    13. in the event of :in case of
    Make sentences by using “in the event of”.
    银行答应万一出现紧急情况可以贷款给他。
    The bank promised that he could get a loan in the event of an emergency.


    14. Basically, most students leave knowing they will have to do without their accustomed parental protection and learn to take care of themselves.
    Paraphrase: Basically,  most students leave their homes knowing they will have to live on their own and learn to take care of themselves without parents’ protection that they have been used to. 
     基本上, 大部分的学生离家的时候都知道他们将在没有习以为常的父母的保护下生活,学会自己照顾自己。
    Notice that here the whole “knowing…” phrase functions as an adverbial.
    He came running all the way from the bus stop.
    他从汽车站一路跑着过来。
    He tripped over the carpet leaving the room.
    离开房间时,他在地毯上绊了一跤。
    This kind of phrase can be separated by a comma, and sometimes moved to other positions in the sentence.


    Leaving the room, he tripped over the carpet.
    15. take on: undertake, charge oneself with
    Can you use “take on” to form other phrases?
    take on work
    take on responsibility
    Cf. take along: carry, take away
    16. to (one’s) capacity
    to (one’s) capacity: completely full
    This ship was filled to capacity with goods.该船满载货物。
    The hall is filled to capacity.大厅挤得满满的。
    17.Another moment of tension descends while students await the domestic flight that will take them to their temporary home in America.


    Paraphrase: While students are waiting for the domestic   flight that will take them to the places they will stay at, they feel tension again.
    当学生们在等待国内航班把他们送往他们在美国的临时的家时,他们感受到了另一种紧张情绪。
    descend  vi.  Move down from a higher to a lower level,
               Examples:  We turned to the place where the sound came from and saw a huge stone descended from the top of the hill.
                         We were so concentrated on our job that we weren’t aware that the sun descended over the western hill.
            In the sentence, the word “descend ” is used in a literary way, it means that a feeling of tension spread among the students.

    Await   vt.   wait for , be waiting for
    Good luck awaits those who never give up.
    18. Another big problem encountered by most youngsters is how sick they feel about being away from home.(Para.10)
    The problem of homesick is another big problem the young people have to face.
    19.A few teenagers arrive in the United States with little command of English. (Para. 12)
    A few youngsters nearly do not know English when they arrive the United States.
    Command  n.  1) ability to use or control sth.
    Examples: His father has a good command of three foreign languages. 精通…

    their poor command of English他们蹩脚的英语
    他的中文还不到家。
    His command of Chinese language in not yet strong.
    The young man is lack of reason, he has no command over himself.
     2) order
    Examples: The dog ran forward at his owner’s command..
    v.     1) be able to use
    Examples:  She commands the authority to enter the prohibited area.
    2) order
      Examples: The father commanded his son not to cry.

    20.        This in turn pushes up the program cost, estimates at about $ 3,800, including air fare.
    这就增加了留学的费用,再加上飞机票钱,估计费用达到约 3,800美元。
    in turn:  You use in turn to refer to people, things, or actions that are in a sequence one after the other.
    转而,反过来;依次地,轮流地
     Examples: Theory comes from practice and in turn serves practice.
                     They went through the hard times together and in turn their relationship was strengthened.
    During the holidays he visited all his colleagues in turn.


    Text Structure Analysis
    A general statement:?

     

    The reasons: ?

    Read the following
    different opinions
    about studying abroad.
    Think and discuss with
    your partner what is
    your opinion about
    studying abroad,
    especially about
    teenagers’ studying
     abroad.

    The experience of studying abroad is like a textbook. By reading a textbook you gain knowledge, become more informed, and develop new opinions. Studying abroad unfolds into the most intriguing and informative textbook. You learn and enjoy doing it. Studying abroad offers the opportunity to hear and speak a foreign language, to see and become familiar with geography, to witness world politics, and to absorb the different cultures that surround you. You are immersed into a whole new world, like walking through the pages of a textbook. Riding on trains and standing on the geography that was once only on maps, you no longer wonder about these foreign lands, but live in them. Your knowledge can grow in tandem with the globalization of the world, with you in the middle learning current events, politics and watching history in the making. I was studying and learning French, not just in the classroom, but by living with the language. I was given the time to learn about the world and about myself. Being abroad widened my perspective and filled me with knowledge, prompting me to read on. being abroad offers you a unique opportunity to learn.

    There are many students who consider studying abroad as the lifeline to avoid the studying atmosphere in China. Because they consider that the study in China is very difficult and very boring. On another hand lots of information, which is from the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand etc., said that the students there have a happy life, no homework, no examination and easily get to the higher education. But now in China, the students are working so hard that foreign students cannot imagine.
    In the meantime students who have ever been abroad said that it is not according to what they were informed in China in advance. The study abroad is also very hard, there are also examinations every day even which is the same in China. The first thing they must overcome is the language problem. They think that it is easy to learn the foreign language, in fact it has a lot of cultural shock which make the students troubled. It's really not easy. And now in China ability is more important than the only study. Generally studying abroad is not the shortcut like they imagined. Don't go abroad only for the reason to avoid the demanding study in China. It is important to study basic knowledge here, for it's still the best in the world.


    Chinese consulate officials are warning parents and students to take precautions when sending their children abroad to study. They added that it is important that those wanting to study abroad be mature enough to handle the difficulties of adjusting to a new culture. "Some young overseas Chinese students have difficulty adapting to life abroad because of the language barrier and unfamiliarity with local laws and regulations," said Zhou Limin, of the Chinese Consulate General in Toronto. The number of teenage Chinese students studying abroad has grown at an annual rate of 40 per cent over the last three years. The number is expected to reach 50,000 this year and exceed 100,000 by 2005.

    Writing 1:
    Should Teenagers Go Abroad to Study?
    Your paragraph should start with a general statement and is followed by some reasons.

    Writing 2:
    Read the following sample letter of  applying for studying in a foreign university and write a letter of your own.

    Dear Sirs:
           I would like to enter your university to take such courses as linguistics and literature.
           I was born in 1977. In 1995 I was enrolled at the Foreign Language Department of Dalian University of Science and Technology. During my four academic years, I made good grades on all my courses. After graduation, I found that my interests tending more and more toward language teaching. Now I have passed TOEFL.
        A transcript of records of all the courses I completed at the university and two letters of recommendation offered by two of my professors will be sent to you.
        I hope that a letter of admission will be issued to me in due course.
        I am looking forward to your reply.
                                                                             Sincerely yours,
                                                                             Gao Ming

    Write a letter based on the following situation:
          You, ×××, are a sophomore majoring in transportation engineering. You want to inquire information about admission to a university and details about scholarships, for you want to seek an opportunity for further study of transportation engineering after graduation. Write a letter of inquiry.

    Structure
    It as the formal subject
    1. It is necessary for the manager to finish the whole task before leaving for a holiday.
    2. It is a shame to take so much money for doing so little.
    3. It is our responsibility to help people around us who are in trouble.
    4. It is a surprise for us all to realize he has been cheating us.
    5. It is pleasant for the mother to see her daughter growing into a young lady.

    1. as long as she got her father’s agreement
    2. As long as you set a goal for yourself
    3. As long as she covers all expenses herself
    4. as long as she does her routine job well
    5. As long as you never lose heart
    Vocabulary
     granted / departure / abroad / adapt / domestic / accustomed / command / descended
    plans on / lived through / dreamed of / take on / hit the target / host to / economize on / in turn
    Word building
    sadness / weakness / carelessness / illness/ darkness / kindness / laziness / nervousness
    noisy / wealthy / sunny / lucky / tasty/ healthy / sleepy / icy

    Story summary
    1. B   2. A    3. C    4. C    5. B     6. A     7. C      8. C      9. B      10. A      11. C      12. B      13. A     14. A     15. A     16. B     17. C      18. A     19. B      20. C

    Section B
    Reading skills --- reading for the key idea in a sentence
    The key idea of a sentence usually tells:
    1) what a person or an object is
    2)what a person or an object is doing
    In order to find the key idea of a sentence we have to:
    1) ask who or what the sentence is about;
    2) ask what the person or object is doing, or what is happening to the person or object;
    3) learn to separate details from the key idea.
    Look at the following example:
        American families, which host foreign students, are not paid, though they are allowed a small income tax deduction.
    1) ask who or what the sentence is about?


    3) learn to separate details from the key idea. 
            American families, which host foreign students, are not paid, though they are allowed a small income tax deduction.

    Many words in a sentence describe things about the subject of the sentence and only add details around it . If we ask when, what kind, where, or why, we will find details. As a result it will be easier for us to see the key idea.


    1. Another segment of this longest journey begins.
    2. We don’t know about dining cars and we can hardly afford that.
    3. I become silently indifferent.
    4. My sister is ill with a fever.
    5. Two people come to greet us.

    Section B
    Experiences in Exile

    Section B
    1. We are in Montreal, in an echoing, dark train station, and we are squeezed together on a bench ... (L.1)
    我们到了蒙特利尔,呆在一个嘈杂的、黑暗的火车站里,紧紧地挤在一起,坐在一条长凳上……
    2. Eventually, a man speaking broken Polish approaches us, takes us to the ticket window, and then helps us board our train.
       终于, 一个操着蹩脚的波兰语的男子走了过来,把我们带到售票窗口, 然后帮助我们上了火车。
    3. And so begins yet another segment of this longest journey---- all the longer because we don’t exactly know when it will end, when we’ll reach our destination
    这样就.开始了我们漫长旅途的另一程,说它长是因为我们确实不知道它会在什么时候结束,什么时候我们才会到达我们的目的地。

     

    4. The train cuts through infinite territory, most of it flat and boring, and it seems to me that the ceaseless rhythm of the wheels is like scissors cutting a three-thousand-mile through my life.(Para.3)
    The train runs across a vast area, most of which is flat and boring. As the train goes on, with the rhythm of the wheels continuing endlessly, I feel as if my life was divided into two parts by the running of the train, with my past on one side and the future on the other. There is a distance of 3,000 miles between the two sides.
    火车在无边无际的原野上行驶,大多数的土地是平坦和有些令人厌烦的。对我来说那无休无止的车轮发出的声音就象是剪刀一样喀嚓喀嚓把我的生活剪出了一条三千英里的口子。


    5. After a while, I shrink into a silent indifference, (Para. 4)
    After a while, I lose all my interests in anything around me and become silent.
    shrink vi  1)  move away from something or somebody unpleasant
    The boy shrank into his room when he heard the voice of his teacher.
    Shrinking from difficulties is not in my dictionary.
    Air-conditioner sales have been shrinking as the autumn comes.
    shrink from making new acquaintances怕交新朋友
    这孩子怕见生人.
    The child shrinks from meeting strangers.
    2)      become smaller, esp. because of water, heat or cold

    My shirt shrink a lot because I washed it with hot water.
    vt. cause something to become smaller
    My boss shrank my salary because the bad sale of the store this season.
     The higher efficiency has shrunk the cost of product by 50%.
        indifference:  n.  lack of interest冷淡, 不在乎,无关紧要
    I persuaded him to change his decision, but he only looked at me with indifference.
      Jack’s father is rather angry with him for his indifference to the future.
        indifferent    a.   having no interest in, not caring about or noticing
    过了一会儿,我缩成一团,一声不吭,对什么都不感兴趣.
                    

    6. fortune
    Someone who has a fortune has a very large amount of money.(大量)财产
    她拥有一大笔财产。
    She has a large fortune.
    make a fortune发财,发迹
    He made two fortunes and lost them, dying a poor man.
    他两度发财,两度失掉财产,死时很穷。
    John’s father made a fortune out of bananas.
    约翰的父亲是经营香蕉致富的。
    他在澳大利亚发了大财。
    He made a big fortune in Australia.
    build up a fortune积聚财富
    build up a fortune out of nothing白手起家
    ruin one’s fortune倾家荡产
    seek one’s fortune力图发家致富


    6. …, but I retreat into an even more determined silence. (l.31)
    but I become even more silent than before as I have made up my mind to be like this.
    7. My parents’ faces reflect anticipation and anxiety. (L.37)
    My parents’ faces show a mixed expression of both anticipation and anxiety.
    reflect: vt. show, express
    我父母脸上流露出期待和焦急的神情。
    7. “Get off the train on the right foot,” my mother tells us. “For luck in the new life.”(L37)
    Before they get off the train, the mother tells her children to step onto the new land with their right feet  first for good luck I new life. This is a superstitious belief.

    Vocabulary
    emigrate / guidance / infinite / prosperous / shrinks / warmth / whatsoever / ceaseless
    made a fortune / make sure / full of people / was dressed in / is always indifferent to / enter into / did not know about / pay for
    If you are dressed in a particular way, you are wearing clothes of a particular kind or color.
    He was dressed in a black suit.
    The lady was dressed I white at the party.
    Cf. dress oneself in
    She dressed herself in a gown.
    If you dress someone, for example a child, you put clothes on them.

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