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  • 职场学习与绩效简介
  • 职场学习与绩效

    Building Your Competence in Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP)


    By

    William J. Rothwell, Ph.D.

    Copyright 2001 by William J. Rothwell
    建立职场学习与绩效(WLP) 的专家能力
    威廉·罗斯维尔博士
     
    威廉·罗斯维尔2001版权所有
    Part I: Introduction
    第一部分
    简介 
    Purpose of the Session
        Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP) is the latest generation of the field once called Human Resource Development (HRD) and, before that, Training and Development (T & D). How can you understand the field, the roles carried out by WLP practitioners, the competencies that are associated with successful performance in WLP now and in the future, and build your competencies as the WLP field changes in response to trends unfolding now? How might you apply this knowledge to year-end performance evaluation, compensation programs, and planning for the following year's HRD efforts? Use this two-day Workshop to build your competence as a WLP practitioner.
    本期培训的目的
    “职场学习与绩效(WLP)” 是曾经被称为“人力资源开发(HRD)”,之前曾被称作“培训与发展(T&D)”的这一领域发展的最新阶段。您怎样理解这一领域?您怎样理解这一领域?怎样理解WLP从业者所扮演的角色?怎样了解现在及将来都与WLP优良绩效有关的能力?在WLP领域的时代,怎样根据当今的趋势来增强自己的能力?您怎样把这些知识运用到年终的绩效考核、薪酬计划中及来年的人力资源开发工作中?通过这两天的培训,将会培养您作为一名WLP从业者的能力。

    What Will You Take Away from the Session?
        Upon completion of this two-day Workshop, you will be able to answer the following questions:
    What is Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP), and how does it compare to Training and Development, Human Resource Development, and Human Performance Improvement/Performance Consulting?
    What are the roles of the WLP practitioner, and why are these important for you to know about?
    您将从本期培训中 学到什么?
       在结束这两天的培训后,您将能够回答下列问题:
    什么是职场学习与绩效(WLP)?如何区分培训与发展(T&D)、人力资源开发(HRD)、员工绩效提升(HPI)与绩效咨询(HPC)等概念?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)从业者的角色是什么?为什么了解它对您很重要?
    What Will You Take Away from the Session?
    What are competencies, and what competencies must the WLP practitioner demonstrate to be successful in today's dynamic work settings?
    What are outputs, and how does the WLP practitioner demonstrate these outputs to be successful?
    How can your organization's training department transition to become a WLP department, and why that might be worthy of consideration?
    What are your competencies in WLP, and how can you devise a professional development plan to build your competence as a WLP practitioner?
    您将从本期培训中 学到什么?
    什么是WLP能力?要在当今动态的工作环境中取得成功,WLP从业者必须具备什么样的能力?
    WLP的产出是什么?WLP从业者如何阐明这些产出是成功有效的?
    怎样把您组织培训部门转变为一个职场学习与绩效(WLP)部门?为什么这种转变值得考虑?
    您在WLP方面的能力如何?为了增强自己作为WLP从业者的能力,您怎样来设计自己的职业发展计划?

    What You Will Be Able to Do
        Upon completion of this two-day Workshop, you will be able to do the following:
     Explain how WLP is different from HRD, and why this difference is important
    Analyze human performance problems and identify root cause(s)
    Identify a range of possible interventions to close performance gaps and thereby address the underlying cause(s) of human performance problems
    您将能够做什么?
      两天的课程结束之后,您将能够进行下列工作:
    阐明WLP和人力资源开发(HRD)的区别,并说明这样区别的重要意义
    分析员工绩效问题并识别其根源
    确认为缩小这种绩效差距而可能采取的干预措施,由此探寻员工绩效问题潜在的深层次原因
    What You Will Be Able to Do
    Select one or more interventions that are most appropriate for closing performance gaps
    Implement interventions successfully, using proven methods of project management and change management
    Evaluate the financial and no financial results of an intervention
    Review ways to apply new-found knowledge about WLP to year-end employee performance evaluations, compensation decisions, and planning for the following year's HRD/WLP efforts.
    您将能够做什么
    选择最适合缩小绩效差距的一种以上干预措施
    利用已经过验证的项目管理和变革管理方法,顺利实施干预措施
    评价干预措施的财务和非财务成果
    评价将新发现的WLP知识运用于年终的员工绩效评估、薪酬决策及来年HRD/WLP工作的方法

    The Organization of the Workshop
                   培训的内容结构
    Part II: What Is WLP, and Why Is It Important to You?
    第二部分
    什么是职场学习与绩效(WLP)? 为什么了解它对您很重要?
    Overview of this Part
    This part examines:
    The background: What precedes WLP?
    What is Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP)?
    Why is WLP important?
    本部分概述
    该部分考察了:
    背景:职场学习与绩效(WLP)之前的阶段是什么?
    什么是职场学习与绩效(WLP)?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的重要性何在?
    What Precedes WLP?
    There have been five generations of the field originally called “training and development.”
    It is important to understand them because they provide a backdrop against which to understand WLP.
    什么是WLP的来源?
    最初被称为“培训与发展”的这一领域,共有五个发展阶段
    了解这五个阶段很重要,因为这几个阶段为我们提供了了解WLP的背景
        Generation 1: Training
    This generation focused on one activity—that is, training
    Training changes individuals by equipping them with the knowledge, skills and attitudes they need to perform successfully
    Competency studies consolidate and codify a generation
    Two competency studies were key to this generation: Pinto & Walker (1978) and McLagan (1983)

    第一阶段:培训
    这一阶段的中心是一种活动—即培训
    通过为个人提供其顺利完成工作所需的知识、技能和态度,培训改变了个人
    能力研究巩固并形成了这一阶段
    对这一阶段而言,有两项能力研究是关键: Pinto和Walker的研究 (1978) McLagan的研究 (1983)
                   Generation 2:   Human Resource Development
    Human Resource Development (HRD) is defined as the integrated use of training, organization development and career development
    HRD changes individuals through activities both at present (through training) and in the future (through career development) as well as changes the work environment (OD)
    The competency study that codified and defined this generation was McLagan, P. (1989). Models for HRD practice. 4 vols. Alexandria, VA: The American Society for Training and Development.
    第二阶段: 人力资源开发
    人力资源开发(HRD)被定义为:对培训、组织发展和职业生涯发展的整合运用
    通过改变现在(借助培训)和未来(借助职业开发)的行为,HRD改变个人,也改变了工作环境(OD)
    形成和确立这一阶段的能力研究者是McLagan, P. (1989)《人力资源开发实务模型》. 共四册, Alexandria, VA:美国培训与发展协会
    Generation 3: Human Performance Improvement
    Human Performance Improvement (HPI) is the process of identifying the root cause(s) of human performance problems and finding solutions or interventions to address those causes
    HPI is interested in results, not activities
    HPI uses any or all means to achieve results
    The competency study defining this generation was Rothwell, W. (1996). ASTD models for human performance improvement. Alexandria, VA: The American Society for Training and Development.
    第三阶段: 员工绩效提升
    员工绩效提升 (HPI)是识别员工绩效问题之根源、并且找到消除这些原因之解决办法或干预措施的过程
     HPI 关心的是效果,而不是活动
    HPI利用任何或一切方式去取得效果
    形成和确立这一阶段的能力研究者是威廉·罗斯维尔 (1996).。《ASTD 员工绩效提升模型》. Alexandria, VA: 美国培训与发展协会.
    Generation 4: Workplace Learning and Performance
        WLP is defined as “the integrated use of learning and other interventions for the purpose of improving human performance, and addressing individual and organizational needs.  It uses a systematic process of analyzing and responding to individual, group, and organizational performance issues. It creates positive, progressive change within organizations by balancing humanistic and ethical considerations” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 121).
    第四阶段:职场学习与绩效
     职场学习与绩效(WLP) 被定义为:“为了提升个人和组织绩效、满足个人和组织需求,而对学习和其它干预措施综合运用。WLP采用绩效分析和解决个人、群体和组织绩效问题的一整套系统流程,通过对员工、道德等问题的协调,在组织内创造积极而进步的变革。” (罗斯维尔、Sanders和Soper合著,1999年版, 第121页)
               Why Is WLP Important?
    WLP reinvents HRD in light of HPI
    WLP emphasizes learning as a tool for achieving improved work performance in organizational settings
    Unlike training, which is done to people, learning is something that is done by people
    The competency study defining this generation was Rothwell, W., Sanders, E., & Soper, J. (1999). ASTD models for workplace learning and performance. Alexandria, VA: The American Society for Training and Development.
    职场学习与绩效为什么这样重要?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)借助员工绩效提升(HPI),赋予人力资源开发(HRD)了新的内涵
    WLP强调:把学习作为在组织环境下提升工作绩效的一个工具
    与培训不同的是,培训是作用于人,而学习是通过人产生作用
    形成和确立这一阶段的能力研究者是威廉·罗斯维尔、 Sanders, E., & Soper, J. (1999).《ASTD 职场学习与绩效模型》. Alexandria, VA: 美国培训与发展协会
                      Generation 5:           The Workplace Learner
    WL focuses on individual change through learning, not through training
    Learning is a means to achieve an end of improved performance
    A focus on learning implies a new role for the trainer, HRD professional, HPI practitioner, or WLP practitioner
    The competency study defining this generation is in the works
    第五阶段:职场学习者
    职场学习者(WL)关注的是:通过学习,而不是培训来改变个人
    学习是实现绩效提升目的一种手段
    对学习的关注则意味着,对培训者、人力资源开发专职人员、员工绩效提升从业者或职场学习者的全新角色定位
    定义这一阶段的能力研究工作仍在进行
    Activity: What Are the Implications of These Generations?
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 15 minutes on this Activity
    For each generation of the field listed in the left column in the Activity found in your Participant Guide, list some activities that you believe you should be doing if you are focusing on that generation
    There are no "right" or "wrong" answers in any absolute sense. However, some answers may be better than others.
    When your group is finished, your spokesperson should be prepared to list the activities that your group identified
    活动:这些阶段的 联系是什么?
    按照3—5人为一组的分法,进行分组
    每组指定一个发言人
    花15分钟的时间来讨论这一活动
    针对《学员手册》 “活动”的左栏所列出的每一个阶段,请列出您对该阶段的工作将会采取的一些行动
    虽然不存在绝对“正确”或绝对“错误”的答案,但是,确实有些答案可能比另一些更好
    当小组讨论完以后,各组的发言人应该准备把本组确认的那些工作列出来
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group report on their groups’ answers?
    活动汇报
    请各组的发言人把您那个小组的成果汇报一下。
    Part III: What Are the Roles, Competencies, and Outputs of WLP Practitioners, and What Results Are Expected from Them?
    第三部分
    从事职场学习与绩效(WLP)工作的人扮演什么角色?应具备什么能力?有什么样的产出?期望从中获得什么结果?
       Overview of this Part
    This Part examines:
    What is a role?
    What roles are associated with WLP?
    What is a competency?
    What competencies are related to WLP?
    What are outputs?

    本部分概述
    该部分考察了:
    什么是角色?
    与职场学习与绩效(WLP)相关的角色有哪些?
    什么是能力?
    与职场学习与绩效(WLP)相关的能力有哪些?
    什么是产出?

       Active Lecture Activity
    I am about to begin a lecture on WLP. Since lectures can be boring, the goal of this Activity is to make the lecture more exciting than usual
    I would like 3 teams to form
    Team 1: Your role is to come up with examples from your own work experience that are related to the material of the lecture
    Team 2: Your role is to come up with a list of questions about the lecture
    Team 3: Your role is to come up with a list of points in which you disagree with what I am saying in the lecture
    I will give you about 3 minutes to form and organize your teams, and you must be prepared to enact your roles after the lecture
    活跃课堂的活动
    我将开始讲授职场学习与绩效(WLP)。由于讲解可能会很枯燥乏味,所有这次活动的目的就是要使它比平时生动些。
    我想将大家分为三个组
    小组1:任务是从自己的工作经历中找出与本课内容有关的例子
    小组2:任务是列出与本课程有关的问题清单
    小组3:任务是列出您不同意我在课中所讲的内容的要点
    我会给大家3分钟左右的时间来分组,而各组在我讲授之后必须准备去扮演各自的角色
    What Is a  Role?
    A role is a part played.
    Roles may vary by organization size and type.
    Not all roles are played by all practitioners.
    Roles are versatile, permitting discussion across organizations.
    什么是角色?
    角色即扮演的人物
    角色可能随着组织规模和形式的不同而不同
    并不是所有的角色都是由所有的专业人员来承担的
    角色不是多面手,允许在组织中磋商
            WLP Roles
    Manager
    Analyst
    Intervention Selector
    Intervention Designer and Developer
    Intervention Implementor
    Change Leader
    Evaluator  
    职场学习与绩效(WLP) 角色
    管理者
    分析师
    干预措施的选择者
    干预措施设计与开发者
    干预措施实施者
     变革领导者
     评估者  

    WLP Roles
        “Plans, organizes, schedules, monitors, and leads the work of individuals and groups to attain desired results; facilitates the strategic plan; ensures that WLP is aligned with organizational needs and plans; and ensures accomplishment of the administrative requirements of the function” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Manager
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “为取得希望的结果而制定计划、组织人员、确定时间、控制并引导个人和群体的工作;推进战略规划;确保WLP与组织需求和计划是整合在一起的;确保职能部门行政要求的执行。” (罗斯维尔、Sanders和Soper,1999年版,第43页)。
    管理者
    WLP Roles
        “Troubleshoots and isolates the causes of human performance gaps or identifies areas for improving human performance” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Analyst
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “分析并解决员工绩效差距存在的起因,或者是识别员工绩效提升的范围。” (罗斯维尔、Sanders和Soper,1999年版,第43页)
    分析师
    WLP Roles
        “Chooses appropriate interventions to address root causes of human performance gaps” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Intervention Selector
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    选择恰当的干预措施,以消除员工绩效差距的根源。”  (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999, 第43页)。
    干预措施
         的选择者
    WLP Roles
        “Creates learning and other interventions that help to address the specific root causes of human performance gaps” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Intervention Designer and Developer
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “制定学习和其它干预措施,帮助解决的员工绩效差距的具体根源。” (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999年版, 第43页)。

    干预措施设计
        与开发者
    WLP Roles
        “Ensures the appropriate and effective implementation of desired interventions that address the specific root causes of human performance gaps” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Intervention Implementer
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “确保合理的干预措施得以恰当而有效地实施,探寻员工绩效差距的具体根源。” (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999年版,第43页)。
    干预措施
         实施者
    WLP Roles
        “Inspires the workforce to embrace the change, creates a direction for the change effort, helps the organization’s workforce adapt to the change, and ensures that interventions are continuously monitored and guided in ways consistent with stakeholders’ desired results” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Change Leader

    WLP Roles

     

      Activity on WLP Roles
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 15 minutes
    Identify the roles you play now
    Identify roles you think you should be playing—and why you think you should be playing them
    When you finish, your spokesperson should be prepared to report the answers of your group
    关于WLP角色的活动
    按每3—5个人为一个小组,进行分组
    各组指定一个发言人
    花15分钟讨论这一行动
    确认您现在扮演的角色
    确认您认为应该扮演的角色—说明为什么您认为应该扮演这些角色
    当小组活动完以后,各组的发言人应准备报告本组的成果
    Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group report on their groups’ answers?
    活动汇报
    请各组发言人报告本组的成果。
    What Is a Competency?
    A competency:
    Is any characteristic that underlies successful performance
    Is any characteristic necessary to carry out work activities and achieve work results
    Is Broader than the notion of knowledge, skills or attitudes
    May include traits, bodies of knowledge, and even levels of motivation
    Competency defined
    什么是能力?
    能力
    是成功绩效的基础特质
    是执行工作并取得成果的必备特质
    含义比知识、技能和态度更广
    可能包括品质特性、知识结构甚至动机层次
    能力的定义
    Why Are Competencies Important?
    Work activities change, but competencies are enduring
    Work activities focus on what people do, not on what results they achieve
    Knowledge, skill and attitude do not encompass everything required to achieve results and tend to minimize the importance of attitudes, feelings, beliefs, values, and motivation
    为什么能力如此重要?
    工作活动是变化的,但能力却是持久的
    工作活动集中关注应该做什么,而不是关注应该取得什么
    知识、技能和态度没有包括达到目标所需的一切,而且往往把态度、情绪、信仰、价值观和动机的重要性降到最低

    6 Categories of WLP Competencies
    Analytical: Creation of new understandings through the synthesis of data (19 total)
    Business: Understanding of organizations as systems, processes, and operational units (11 total)
    Interpersonal: Understanding the methods that produce effective interactions of people and groups (5 total)
    WLP的六类能力
    分析能力:通过对资料的综合处理,产生新的见解(共19种)
    经营能力:将组织视为系统、流程和运作单元(共11种)
    人际关系的能力:理解使个人和群体之间产生有效互动的方法(共5种)
    6 Categories of WLP Competencies
    Leadership: Influencing, enabling, or inspiring others to act (7 total)
    Technical: Understanding existing knowledge or processes (6 total)
    Technological: Understanding current or emerging technologies (4 Total)
    WLP的六类能力
    领导能力:影响、促动或激励他人采取行动(共7种)
    技术能力:了解现存的知识或流程(共6种)
    科技能力:了解现有和新出现的科技(共4种)
    Analytical Competencies
    Analytical Thinking
    Analyzing Performance Data
    Competency Identification
    Intervention Selection
    Model Building
    Performance Gap Analysis
    Performance Theory
    分析能力
    分析思考法
    分析绩效资料
    识别能力
    干预措施选择
    构建模型
    绩效差距分析
    绩效理论 
         Business Competencies
    Ability to See the “Big Picture”
    Business Knowledge
    Cost/Benefit Analysis
    Identification of Critical Business Issues
    Industry Awareness
    Project Management
    经营能力
    领会“整体情况”的能力
    业务知识
    成本/收益分析
    识别重大的经营问题
    行业意识
    项目管理
         Interpersonal Competencies
    Communication
    Communication Networks
    Consulting
    Coping Skills
    Interpersonal Relationship Building
    人际关系的能力
    沟通
    沟通网络
    咨询
    人际关系处理技巧
    人际关系建立
    Leadership Competencies
    Buy-in/Advocacy
    Diversity Awareness
    Ethics Modeling
    Goal Implementation
    Group Dynamics
    Leadership
    Visioning

    领导的能力
    说服/倡导
    多样化意识
    树立道德榜样
    目标实施
    群体动力
    领导艺术
    制定远景目标
    Technical Competencies
    Adult Learning
    Facilitation
    Feedback
    Intervention Monitoring
    Questioning
    Survey Design and Development
    技巧的能力
    成人学习
    促进
    反馈
    监控干预措施
    提问
    调查的设计与改进
         Technological Competencies
    Computer–Mediated Communication
    Distance Education
    Electronic Performance Support Systems
    Technological Literacy

    科技能力
    以电脑为媒介进行沟通
    远程教育
    电子绩效支持系统
    科技素养
                      Outputs
    Outputs:
    Are the results of work activities and/or competencies
    May vary by organizational setting or corporate culture
    May be categorized into two types—terminal outputs (final results) and enabling outputs (intermediate to achieving results)
    产出
    产出: 
    是工作活动和/或工作能力的效果
    可能会随着组织环境或企业文化的变化而变化
    可被概括为两类—终端产出(最终成果)和辅助产出(取得最终成果的中介)
       Active Lecture Debrief
    Let me give you about 5 minutes to get ready in your teams
    Are the members of Team 1 ready to come up with examples from their own work experience that are related to the material of the lecture?
    Are the members of Team 2 ready to give the list of questions about the lecture?
    Are the members of Team 3 ready to come up with their list of points in which they disagreed with what I said in the lecture?
    活动汇报
    我给大家5分钟的准备时间
    要求第一小组结合自己的工作经验,找出与本堂课相关之案例的解决方案。
    要求第二小组对列出一些跟本堂课问题?
    要求第三小组列出跟我的观点不一致的地方。
    Part IV: How Can You Enact the Roles?
    第四部分: 您该怎样扮演这些角色?
       Overview of this Part
    This Part examines:
    What 7 roles are associated with WLP?
    How are those roles carried out?
    What activities can help you build your competence in WLP?

    本部分概述
     该部分考察了:
    与职场学习与绩效(WLP)有关的7种角色。
    怎样发挥这些角色的作用?
    哪些行动能帮助您培养职场学习与绩效(WLP)方面的能力?
    WLP Roles
        “Plans, organizes, schedules, monitors, and leads the work of individuals and groups to attain desired results; facilitates the strategic plan; ensures that WLP is aligned with organizational needs and plans; and ensures accomplishment of the administrative requirements of the function” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    What does the Manager of WLP do?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “为取得希望的结果而制定计划、组织人员、确定时间、控制并引导个人和群体的工作;推进战略规划;确保WLP与组织需求和计划是整合在一起的;确保职能部门行政要求的执行。” (罗斯维尔、Sanders和Soper,1999年版,第43页)


    管理者
    Large Group Activity
    Let’s take a minute to list on a flipchart what a manager of WLP does that other managers do not do
    Let’s brainstorm around answering this question: What is unique about the job of manager of WLP, which might be called (in some organizations) “Training Director”?
    Now let’s brainstorm around answering this question: Why should we care about this?
    What does the Manager of WLP do?
    全班活动
    让我们花一分钟,在翻转图上列出WLP管理者所做的事,而这些事是其他管理者不做的
    让我们采用“头脑风暴法”讨论下面这个问题:可能被称为“培训总监”(在某些组织中)的WLP管理者,其工作的独特之处是什么?
    现在让我们用头脑风暴法回答这一问题:为什么我们应该关心这个问题?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)管理者做什么?
     What Is WLP Strategy?
       WLP Strategy:  The way an organization goes about planning for, and/or orchestrating, the learning of its members
    什么是职场学习与绩效 (WLP)战略?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)战略:指组织规划及/或协调其成员之学习行为的方式。
           Why Is WLP Strategy Important?
       WLP Strategy is important to:
    Link planned learning activities to organizational competitive issues/objectives
    Ensure that WLP is meeting “business needs”
    Can you think of other ways it is important?
    为什么职场学习与绩效(WLP)战略如此重要?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)战略的重要性在于:
    将有计划的学习活动与组织的竞争问题/目标联系起来
    确保职场学习与绩效(WLP)满足“经营需求”
    您还能想到它的其它重要性吗?
    How Is WLP Strategy Carried Out?
    怎样实施WLP 战略?
    Introduction to Activity
    Let’s spend just a minute in a role play in front of the class
    I need a volunteer who is willing to pretend to be a consultant visiting me, the CEO of an organization
    I would like you to ask me questions about the WLP efforts of my organization
    Your goal is to pose questions that will permit you to write a proposal to be the outsourcing agent for the Training Department of my organization
    The volunteer is free to be creative in asking me questions
    活动简介
    让我们花一分钟在全班面前进行角色扮演
    我需要一个志愿者扮作来拜访我的顾问,而我,则扮演一个企业的CEO
    我想让这位顾问问我一些有关我企业的WLP工作的问题
    顾问目的是,提出问题,这些问题可以使您能为我公司的培训部门写一份建议书,建议由您自己来担任该部门的外包代理人
    志愿者在向我提出问题时,可以自由发挥
            Activity
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 30 minutes to prepare a rough draft proposal for what you would do to help my organization by serving as the chief outsourcing agent for WLP
    When your group is finished, you should have a rough draft proposal that your spokesperson is ready to share with the group
    活动
    按3-5人一组,进行分组
    各组指定一个发言人
    用约30分钟的时间准备一份粗略的建议草案,这份草案要说明,作为主要的WLP外包代理人,您将如何帮助我的企业。
    小组完成以后,由小组发言人代表各个小组跟全班分享本组的建议草案
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group report on their groups’ answers?
    活动汇报
    请各组发言人报告本组的
    活动成果。
    A Model to Guide the Work of the WLP Manager
    Source: Rothwell, W. (2001). The manager and the change leader. Alexandria, VA: The American Society for Training and Development.
    指导WLP管理者工作的一个模型
    来源:罗斯维尔 W. (2001)《管理者和变革领导者》Alexandria,VA: 美国培训与发展协会
    A Vignette on the Role of the Manager
    Form groups of 3-5 people
    Appoint a spokesperson
    Work on this vignette for about 15 minutes
    When your group is finished, be prepared to answer the questions appearing at the end of the case
    简述WLP管理者的角色
    分成3-5人的若干小组
    各组指定一个发言人
    大约花15分钟进行简述
    小组完成后,准备回答案例
       后面提出的问题
    Debrief on the Vignette on the Role of the Manager
    What spokesperson would like to volunteer to go first to give his or her group’s answers to the vignette?
    WLP管理者角色简述的报告
    哪位发言人愿意第一个上来汇报他/她的小组的讨论结果?
    WLP Roles
        “Troubleshoots and isolates the causes of human performance gaps or identifies areas for improving human performance” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    Analyst
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “分析并解决员工绩效差距存在的起因,或者是识别员工绩效提升的范围。” (罗斯维尔、Sanders和Soper,1999年版,第43页)
    分析师
    What Is Performance Analysis?
    Performance Analysis is "an attempt at a method of disciplining ourselves as we seek to delineate our problems before we rush into a solution" (Gilbert, 1982, p. 22).
    Performance Analysis distinguishes problems that are caused by lack of individual knowledge, skill or attitude from those caused by other reasons.
    什么是绩效分析?
    绩效分析是“人们在匆忙解决问题之前,在寻求对问题的详细描绘时,进行自我约束的一种方法尝试” (Gilbert, 1982, p. 22).
    绩效分析把那些因缺乏个人的知识、技巧和态度而产生的问题与由其他原因产生的问题相区别
          What Is Cause Analysis?
    Cause Analysis is the process of identifying the root cause(s) of human performance problems.
    什么是原因分析?
    原因分析是一个识别员工绩效问题产生的根源的过程
    What Is Training Needs Analysis?
    Training Needs Analysis (TNA) "is the systematic study of a problem or innovation, incorporating data and opinions from varied sources, in order to make effective decisions or recommendations about what should happen next" (Rossett, 1987, p. 3).
    TNA assumes that training is the solution or is part of a solution.
    Training is not always necessary.
    什么是培训需求分析?
    培训需求分析(TNA)“对问题或创新进行系统研究,将从不同来源获取的资料和观点加以综合,由此做出将会发生什么的有效决策或建议。” (Rossett, 1987, p. 3).
    TNA的假设是,培训是一种解决方案或是解决方案的一部分
    培训并不总是必需的
    How Do Performance Analysis and Cause Analysis Relate to Training Needs Analysis?
    怎样把绩效分析、原因分析 与培训需求分析结合起来?
    Model to Guide Analysis
    分析的指导模型
            Activity
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 15 minutes to read over the critical incidents provided in your Participant Guide
    Identify whether you think the problem is a training problem, a management problem, or both
    Describe what you would do to solve each problem and why you would do that
    When your group is finished, your group spokesperson should be prepared to describe your answers
    活动
    按3-5人一组,进行分组
    各组指定一个发言人
    花15分钟阅读《学员手册》中的危机事件
    判断,这个问题是属于培训问题还是属于管理问题,或着是两者都是
    描述您将如何解决每个问题,说明您为什么要这样解决
    当小组讨论完以后,各小组的发言人应该准备描述本组的解决方案
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group report on their groups’ answers to the critical incidents?
    活动汇报
    请各组发言人把他/她的小组对该事件的讨论结果报告一下。
            Activity
    Divide up into small groups of 3 people each
    Appoint one person to play the role of Analyst, one person to play the role of a line manager or client, and one person to play observer
    Spend about 20 minutes on the role play activity
    The person playing the role of Analyst should come up with a list of questions to ask the line manager/client about work or business problems he or she is facing
    活动
    分成3人一组的若干小组
    指定一个人扮演分析师,一个人扮演业务部门经理或客户,另一个人扮演旁观者
    花20分钟进行角色扮演活动
    扮演分析师的人要向业务部门经理提出他/她所面临的工作或业务问题
            Activity
    The person playing the role of line manager or client is free to be creative in his or her answers
    The observer should take notes to indicate what happens in the role play and should be ready to report those to the large group after the role play
    One group should be prepared, if time permits, to re-enact the role play at the front of the room so that others may see what happened
    活动
    扮演业务部门经理或客户的人可以自由地回答
    旁观者应该记录整个角色扮演过程,并在角色扮演后准备向全班报告
    如果时间允许,请一个小组在教室前面来重新进行角色扮演,以让其他人能够看到发生了什么
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have an observer report on what happened in his or her group?
    Could I have one group volunteer to re-enact the role play in front of the group?
    活动汇报
    请旁观者提交本组的观察报告。
    请一个志愿小组上台、在全班面前重新表演一遍。
          A Model to Guide the Work of the Analyst
    一个指导工作分析模型
    WLP Roles: The Intervention Selector
        “Chooses appropriate interventions to address root causes of human performance gaps” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    What does the Intervention Selector do?
    WLP作用:干预措施的选择者
    “选择恰当的干预措施,以消除员工绩效差距的根源。”  (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999, 第43页)
    干预措施的选择者应该做什么?
            Activity
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 30 minutes to make 2 lists
    One list should consist of all the possible sources of human performance problems that you can think of
    The second list should consist of all the possible solutions to those problems that you can think of
    When your group is finished, you should have 2 lists ready to present to the large group
    活动
     按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    各组指定一个发言人
    花30分钟做两个表
    第一个表应包括您能想到的员工绩效问题的所有原因
    第二个表应该包括您能想到的关于这些问题的所有可能的解决方案
    当小组完成讨论后,请各组准备把这两个列表呈交全班
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group present their lists?
    活动报告
    请各组呈交本组完成的列表。
    Can Interventions Be Averted?
    Yes: focus on creating an environment in which people are capable of performing to their peak
    Such an environment is called a High Performance Workplace (HPW)
    The process of creating and continuously managing performance improvement efforts is called performance management
    能否避开干预?
    可以:重点在于创造能使人产生达到最高绩效的环境
    这种环境被称作“高绩效工作场所”(HPW)
    创造并不断促进绩效提升的工作过程就被称作绩效管理
    Activity on the Competencies of the Intervention Selector
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    For each situation described under column 1 in your Participate Guide, indicate under column 2  from what cause(s) you believe the problems may stem
    Then describe under column 3 what interventions you would recommend and tell why you would recommend them
    Finally, under column 4, indicate what you believe to be the key competencies that would be necessary to select the appropriate interventions to address the cause(s) of the problem
    Spend no more than 30 minutes on this Activity
    When you are finished, appoint a spokesperson for your team and be prepared to report how you answered the questions
    关于干预措施选择者能力 的活动
    按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    对于《学员手册》第一栏中描述的每一种情况,在第二栏中写出您认为这些问题可能产生的原因
    在第三栏中描述您推荐的干预措施,并说明您推荐的理由
    最后,在第4栏下指出,您认为,为了消除问题产生的原因,选择合适干预措施所必需的关键能力是什么。
    该活动不超过30分钟
    小组讨论完后,各组指定的发言人则准备就本组如何解决这一问题做报告
    Debrief of the Activity on the Competencies of the Intervention Selector
    Could I have a volunteer from among the group spokesperson to share how his or her group responded to these situations?
    关于干预措施的选择者能力活动的汇报
    能让我从小组发言人中选一位志愿者,把他们/她们小组对于这些情况的反应分享给大家吗?
    A Model to Guide the Work of the Intervention Selector
    指导干涉选者工作模型
    Another  Model to Guide the Work of the Intervention Selector
    指导干预措施选择者工作的又一模型
    A Simplistic Performance Model
     
    简单的绩效模型
     
    Causes of Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order that they are most often encountered:
    Lack of feedback on consequences
    No timely feedback
    Lack of assigned responsibility
    Lack of knowledge
    Lack of rewards for performing
    Lack of information
    员工绩效问题的原因
        按照感知顺序将他们最经常
        遇到的问题加以排列:
    对结果缺乏反馈
    没有及时的反馈
    缺乏指定的职责
    缺乏知识
    没有根据工作完成情况进行奖励
    缺乏信息
    Causes of Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order that they are most often encountered:
    No practice
    Fear for job security
    Lack of motivation
    员工绩效问题的原因
       按照感知的顺序列出他们
       最常遇到的问题:
    没有实践
    担心工作安全
    缺乏动力
    Causes of Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order of importance:
    Lack of feedback on consequences
    No timely feedback
    Lack of assigned responsibility
    Lack of rewards for performing
    Lack of information
    Lack of knowledge
    员工绩效问题的原因
       按感知到的重要性排列:
    对结果缺乏反馈
    没有及时的反馈
    缺乏指定的职责
    没有根据工作完成情况进行奖励
    缺乏信息
    缺乏知识
    Causes of Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order of importance:
    Lack of timely information
    Lack of ability
    Insufficient practice
    Lack of motivation
    员工绩效问题的原因
    按感知的重要性排列:
    缺乏及时的信息
    缺乏足够的能力
    缺乏足够的实践
    缺乏动力
    A Summary of Major Causes of Human Performance Problems
       
    员工绩效问题的主要原因概要
       
    What Solutions or Interventions Could Solve/Address Each Root Cause?
       
    解决这些原因的方法或措施是什么?
       
    Solutions to Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order of frequency of  use:
    Providing information to perform
    Training
    Providing clear feedback
    Improving timely feedback to performers
    Job aids/performance support
    Clarifying work responsibility
    Providing opportunities to practice
    Providing adequate tools
    员工绩效问题的解决方案
    以使用频率为序:
    提供履行职责的信息
    培训
    提供清晰的反馈
    为执行者提高反馈的时效性
    工作辅助/工作支持
    明确工作职责
    提供实践机会
    提供相应的工具
    Solutions to Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order of frequency of use:
    Providing tools
    Clarifying organizational plans
    员工绩效问题的解决方案
       以使用频率为序:
     提供工具
    阐明组织计划
    Solutions to Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order of  effectiveness:
    Providing clear feedback
    Providing information to perform
    Improving timely information during performance
    Training
    Improving timely feedback
    Clarifying responsibility
    Providing practice
    员工绩效问题的解决方案
    以察觉到的效果为序:
    提供清晰的反馈
    为执行提供信息
    在执行过程中提高信息的时效性
    培训
    增强及时的反馈
    明确职责
    提供实践
    Solutions to Human Performance Problems
        Listed in perceived order of effectiveness:
    Changing reward systems to reward performance
    Providing tools to perform
    Changing rewards to address rewards for nonperformance
    员工绩效问题的解决方案
     以察觉到的效果为序:
    改进薪酬系统并奖励绩效
    提供执行的工具
    改革薪酬,寻求非绩效型的薪酬
    A Model to Guide the Work of the Intervention Selector
    指导干预措施选择者工作的模型
    WLP Roles
        “Creates learning and other interventions that help to address the specific root causes of human performance gaps. Some examples of the work of the intervention designer and developer include serving as instructional designer, media specialist, materials developer, process engineer, ergonomics engineer, instructional writer, and compensation analyst” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    What does the Intervention Designer and Developer do?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)的角色
    “选择学习及其它干预措施,帮助解决员工绩效差距存在的具体根源。干预措施设计者与开发者的工作角色包括:培训设计者、媒介专家、教材开发者、流程工程师、工作环境改造专家、教材编写者以及薪酬专家” (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    干预措施设计者和开发者应该做什么?
    A Model to Guide the Work of the Instructional Designer
    指导培训设计者工作的模型
    The Difference Between Designing and Developing
    Design: Refers to the process of preparing a plan or specification
    Development: Transforming the plan into a reality
    设计与开发之间的差异
    设计:指准备一个计划与说明书的过程
    发展:指把计划转变为现实
    Activity on the Role of the Instructional Designer and Developer
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 30 minutes on this Activity
    Use the model for instructional design as a basis for creating a more general model to guide the work of an intervention designer and developer
    When your group is finished, you should have a model for intervention design and development  ready to present to the large group
    关于培训设计与开发者角色的活动
    按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    各组指定一位发言人
    讨论30分钟
    利用培训设计模型,为指导干预措施设计和开发者的工作,创造一个更通用的模型
    各组讨论完后,应该呈现给大家一个已经建好了的干预措施设计和开发的模型。
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group present their model?
    活动汇报
    各组的发言人能否展示一下本组的模型?
    Activity on the Role of the Instructional Designer and Developer
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 10 minutes to brainstorm your group’s answer to this question: What you would do, step-by-step, if you were hired to design training in an organization? (Refer to the competencies and, if possible, use them to create a model of the instructional design process that would use those competencies)
    When your group is finished, your spokesperson should be prepared to present your answer to this question
    关于培训设计与开发者角色的活动
    按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    各组指定一位发言人
    运用头脑风暴法,花10分钟的时间进行小组讨论:如果您被任命为组织的培训设计者,您将怎样一步一步地开展工作?(指出所必备的能力,如果有可能,用这些能力构建一个培训设计流程模型)
    小组讨论完以后,要求各组的发言人准备好将提交本组的答案
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have volunteers to share their answer?
    活动汇报
    有人愿意和大家分享他们的答案吗?
    A Model to Guide the Work of the Intervention Designer and Developer
    指导干预措施设计者与开发者 工作的模型
    Role Play Activity on the Role of the Intervention Designer and Developer
    Divide up into groups of 3 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Devote about 15 minutes to this Activity
    One person should play the part of a WLP professional
    One person should play the part of a manager in an organization
    One person should play observer
    The person who plays the WLP professional should prepare to explain and justify the steps needed to conduct an intervention
    The person who plays the manager should try to second-guess and cut the length of the project
    The observer should watch what happens in the role play and prepare to debrief what happened in the twosome with the larger group
    关于干预措施设计与开发者角色的角色扮演活动
    按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    各组指定一位发言人
    花15分钟进行讨论
    一个人扮演WLP专家
     一个人扮演组织管理者
     另一个人应该扮演旁观者
    扮演WLP专家的人应该解释并论证进行干预措施必要步骤的合理性
    扮演管理者的人应该评论并缩短这一方案的长度
    旁观者应该观察在角色扮演中发生的一切,并准备将前面两人在讨论中发生的事报告给全班
    Debrief of the Role Play Activity on the Role of the Intervention Designer and Developer
    Could I have some observers report on what happened in their groups?
    汇报关于干预措施设计与开发者角色的角色扮演活动
    请旁观者将他们小组中发生的事报告给大家。
    WLP Roles: The Intervention Implementor
        “Ensures the appropriate and effective implementation of desired interventions that address the root causes of human performance gaps. Some examples of the work of the intervention implementor include serving as administrator, instructor, organization development practitioner, career development specialist, process redesign consultant, workspace designer, compensation specialist, and facilitator” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    What does the Intervention Implementor do?
    WLP角色:干预措施实施者
    “确保合理的干预措施得以恰当而有效地实施,探寻员工绩效差距的具体根源。干预措施实施者的具体角色包括:管理者、讲师、组织发展职业人士、职业生涯发展专家、流程再造顾问、工作场所设计、薪酬专家及推进者” (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999年版,第43页)。
    干预措施
         实施者
    Translating the Role of Intervention Implementor
        Think of it like this. The Intervention Implementor can be:
    The “worker” who makes an intervention happen and keeps it on course
    The quintessential role of the intervention implementor is as project manager
    Intervention implementors can also be instructors, facilitators, and others who “make the intervention happen”
    解释干预措施实施者的角色
    这样看待它。干预措施实施者可以是:
    实施干预措施并使之按计划施行的“工作者”
    干预措施实施者的典型角色是担任项目经理
    干预措施实施者也可以是讲师、培训推进者等那些“实施干预措施的人”
    Translating the Role of Intervention Implementor
        Think of it like this. The Intervention Implementor can be:
    The exact nature of the intervention implementor’s actual duties depend on what kind of intervention is being implemented
    In a management intervention, the Intervention Implementor is usually a specialist
    In a learning intervention, the Intervention Implementor is usually an instructor or facilitator
    解释干预措施实施者的角色
    这样看待它。干预措施实施者可以是:
    干预措施实施者的实际职责的确切特性取决于贯彻什么样的干预措施
    在管理干预措施中,干预措施实施者通常是专家
    在学习干预措施中,干预措施实施者通常是讲师或培训推进者
    What Does the Intervention Implementor Do as Project Manager?
        Project managers, as they work on interventions, usually oversee:
    Project activities against the requirements planned in the project proposal and in the formal or informal contract with the client
    Project activities against changing client or sponsor wishes
    Project activities and results against the budget
    Project activities and results against people working on the project
    And most difficult of all: juggling multiple projects
    干预措施实施者作为项目经理应该做什么?
        当项目经理实施干预措施工作时,通常要进行下列工作:
     根据项目计划中与客户的正式或非正式合同之要求来检查项目活动
    根据客户或赞助商变化的愿望来检查项目活动
    通过项目预算来检查项目活动及结果
    通过项目的工作人员来检查项目活动及结果
    而最难的是:多个项目的同时协调安排
    What Are the Most Common Problems That Project Managers Encounter?
        Project managers often encounter such problems as:
    Lack of true commitment from one or more stakeholders
    Changing organizational problems or priorities
    Lack of resources
    Lack of goal clarity among stakeholders about the results or outcomes desired from the project
    Lack of clarity about how to assess or measure results
    What are some other common problems that project managers encounter?
    What should be done about each problem?
    项目经理最常遇见的 问题是什么?
    项目经理经常遇到这样的问题:
    不能从一个或多个利益相关者那里得到真正的承诺
    组织问题或其轻重缓急的变化
    缺乏足够的资源
    无法分清利益相关者的期望结果与项目的预定产出两个目标
    不明确如何去评估或衡量结果
    项目经理还会遇到哪些常见的问题?
    这些问题分别应该怎么解决?
    Questions Posed By Effective Project Managers
        Effective project managers ask themselves such questions as how well they:
    Have justified the project?
    Gathered sufficient information about the project background?
    Grasp the politics of the project?
    Know who the players involved in the project are and what their agenda are?
    Grasp client priorities?

    成功项目经理 提出的问题
        成功项目经理问自己这样一些问题,以检讨自己:
    项目的可行性已经得到证明了吗?
    已经搜集了有关项目背景的足够信息吗?
    领会了项目的纲领吗?
    知道在项目中涉及了哪些人,这些人的问题又是什么?
    掌握了客户的优先级吗?
    Questions Posed By Effective Project Managers
    Identified project deliverables for the entire project and by step or milestone?
    Established the project’s scope?
    Clarified how project deliverables will be reviewed and approved?
    Clarified the organization of the client team and/or client liaison?
    Determined what to do in the event that the client team or liaison (or sponsor) suddenly leaves?
    成功项目经理 提出的问题
    确定整个项目的推广,且判断其是逐步的还是分阶段的?
    确定了项目的范围没有?
    确定了项目的推广是如何被审查并批准通过的吗?
    是否分清了客户团队的组织与/或客户间的交流合作?
    确定了客户团队或中间人(或赞助商)突然撤出时的应对措施吗?
    Questions Posed By Effective Project Managers
    Defined risks and established contingency plans to deal with them?
    Have documented client assumptions and constraints or limitations?
    Have ensured quality control during the project?
    Prepared detailed project tasks/activities?
    Have effectively estimated how long it will take to complete the tasks/activities?
    Assigned resources to meet project requirements?
    Devised a clear project schedule with measurable and identifiable milestones?
    Have matched client time expectations with project requirements?
    Developed and tracked a project budget?
    Computed benefits as well as costs?
    成功项目经理提出的问题
    界定风险并制订处理它们的灵活计划?
    客户的虚假行为和约束感或局限因素已经存档了吗?
    在工程实施中确保有质量控制吗?
    详细的工作任务/活动准备好了吗?
    完成各种任务/活动预计将要花多长时间?对此有一个有效的估计吗?
    是不是根据工程的要求分配好了资源?
    是否有一个详细的工程计划,包括可衡量且可判断的进展标志?
    客户的时间期望是否与工程要求相符?
    是否进行并跟进了工程预算?
    是否在计算收入的同时也计算了费用?
    Questions Posed By Effective Project Managers
    Built an effective project team?
    Matched team member expertise to project requirements?
    Addressed schedule problems?
    Addressed requests for changes in project goals, directions or scope?
    Monitor any subcontractor work?
    Provide clear, effective, and regular information to stakeholders about project progress?
    Celebrate success and recognize individual contributions?
    成功项目经理提出的问题
    建立一个有效的项目团队?
    团队成员的专业技术与工程的要求相匹配?
    解决进度问题?
    解决对项目目标、方向、或范围进行调整的要求?
    监督所有的转包商的工作?
    经常向利益相关者提供清楚、有效的项目进展信息?
    共贺成功,并表彰个人的贡献?
    What Does the Intervention Implementor Do as Instructor or Facilitator?
    Instructors are usually subject matter experts (SMEs) who TELL others
    Facilitators are usually group process experts who ASK others
    干预措施实施者怎样担任讲师或推进者工作?
     讲师通常是教导他人的主题专家(SMEs)
    推进者通常是向他人提出问题的群体活动专家
    A Model of the Instructional Presentation Process
    授课流程模型
    A  Model to Guide the Work of the Intervention Implementor
    指导干预措施实施者工作的模型
    An Activity on Practicing the Role of Intervention Implementor
    Work in your group to come up with suggestions for how to deal with the problems described in the case
    When your group is finished, be prepared to report in depth on your proposal and explain how handling the problems in this case demonstrate the role of the intervention implementor in action
    关于干预措施实施者 角色的实践活动
    小组讨论:怎样处理该案例中出现的问题?就此提出建议
    小组讨论完以后,准备就本组的提议作一个深度报告,并解释如何处理本案例中的问题以实现干预措施实施者在实际活动中所扮演的角色
    Debriefing on an Activity on Practicing the Role of Intervention Implementor
    What group would like to debrief?
    关于实践干预措施实施者角色的活动汇报
    哪一个组愿意上来汇报?

    WLP Roles
        “Inspires the workforce to embrace the change, creates a direction for the change effort, helps the organization’s workforce to adapt to the change, and ensures that interventions are continuously monitored and guided in ways consistent with stakeholders’ desired results” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    What does the Change Leader do?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)角色
    “鼓舞员工支持变革、确定变革工作的方向、帮助组织员工适应变革、确保干预措施受到了连续的监控和引导,而且其监控和引导方式是与相关利益者所期望结果一致的” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999年版, 第43页)。
    变革领导者应该做什么?
    Translating the Role of Change Leader
    Think of the change leader as:
    Follow-up and follow-through artist
    Communicator/publicist
    Group problem-solver and cheerleader
    Facilitator who resolves continuing conflict during an intervention
    In many respects, change leaders apply the principles of Organization Development (OD)
    解释变革领导者的角色
    应当把变革领导者看作是:  
    后续及延续工作的艺术家
    沟通家/宣传家
    群体问题的解决专家和啦啦队长
    促进干预过程中不断出现的问题得到解决的人
    在许多方面,变革领导者运用了组织发展的原理(OD)
    What Is OD?
       “Organization Development focuses on assuring healthy inter- and intra-unit relationships and helping groups initiate and manage change. Organization Development's primary emphasis is on  relationships and processes between and  among individuals and groups” (McLagan, 1989, p. 7).
    什么是组织发展(OD)?
    “组织发展是致力于在单位之间和单位内部保持良好的关系,并帮助群体发起和管理变革。组织发展主要强调的是关系和个体及群体间的流程。” (McLagan, 1989, p. 7).
    What Is OD?
       “Organization Development is a top-management-supported, long-range effort to improve an organization's problem-solving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborative diagnosis and management of organization culture--with special emphasis on formal work team, temporary team, and intergroup culture--with the assistance of a consultant-facilitator and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science, including Action Research”  (French & Bell, 1990, p. 17). 

    什么是组织发展(OD)?
    “组织发展是一项以管理高层为支柱的长期工作,特别是,运用更有效的协同诊断措施以及组织文化的管理—特别强调正式的工作小组、临时团队和群体间的文化—借助顾问-推进者的帮助,借助对实用的行为科学、包括行为研究之原理和技术的应用,来提高组织的问题解决能力并更新流程。” (French & Bell, 1990, p. 17).
    Key Points About OD
        While many people have talked about OD, most agree that it:
    Is long-range in perspective
    Should be supported by top managers
    Effects change chiefly, though not exclusively, through education
    Expands people's ideas, beliefs, and behaviors so they can apply new approaches to old problems
    Relies on participation in the change process by stakeholders of change

    组织发展(OD)的要点
    大多数讨论组织发展(OD)的人都认为它:
     是以长期为出发点
    应该得到高层管理者的支持
    有效的变革是通过教育,然而教育并不是唯一
    开阔人们的思想、信念,拓展其行为,使之能用新方法解决老问题
    通过变革的利益相关者,形成对变革过程中的参与者的依赖
     What Is One Model That Drives OD?
    OD驱动模型
    The Difference Between the Intervention Implementor and the Change Leader
    Think of the intervention implementor as a hands-on change agent, one who takes an active role in implementing a change
    Think of a change leader as a cheerleader and facilitator for change who positively influences others to change
    干预实施者与 变革领导者的区别
    将干预实施者视作是亲自执行变革的代理人,他在实施变革的过程中发挥了积极的作用
    将变革领导者视作变革的啦啦队长和推进者,他积极地影响他人去参与变革
    Activity on the Role of the Change Leader
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 30 minutes on this Activity
    Use the model for OD as a basis for creating a more general model to guide the work of a change leader

    关于变革领导者 角色的活动
     按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    各小组指定一个发言人
    花30进行讨论
    以组织发展(OD) 的模型为基础,创建一个更通用的模型,以指导变革领导者的工作
    Activity on the Role of the Change Leader
    Remember that the change leader’s role “inspires the workforce to embrace the change, creates a direction for the change effort, helps the organization’s workforce to adapt to the change, and ensures that interventions are continuously monitored and guided in ways consistent with stakeholders’ desired results” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    When your group is finished, you should have a model for change leadership ready to present to the large group
    关于变革领导者角色的活动
      记住,变革领导者的角色是“鼓励全体员工拥护变革,为变革工作确定方向,帮助组织中的全体员工适应变革,并确保在与利益相关者期望目标保持一致的情况下,对于干预措施进行连续监控。” (罗斯维尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
    各小组讨论完以后,应该准备一个变革领导者的模型,向全班展示
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group present their model?
    活动汇报
    每个小组的发言人能把本组的模型展示一下吗?
    Conflict Resolution and Change Leadership
       
    Key to the role of change leader is the ability to resolve conflicts during interventions
    Conflicts simply refer to differences
    Conflicts may be constructive or destructive
    冲突解决与变革领导者
     变革领导者关键要有解决干预过程中的冲突的能力
    冲突只是指分歧
    冲突可以是建设性的也可能是破坏性的
    Conflict Resolution and Change Leadership
       
        Conflicts usually stem from:
    Differences of opinion about roles
    Lack of resources
    Interdependencies of organizational groups
    Lack of agreement on goals or desired results, and
    Past history (previous conflicts)
    What other sources of conflict can you think of?
    冲突解决与变革领导者
     冲突一般是起因于:
    对角色的观点有分歧
    缺乏足够的资源
    组织群体间的相互独立性
    对于目标或理想结果缺乏一致性的认可,而且
    过去的历史(以前的冲突)
    您还能想到的其它冲突来源冲突的原因吗?
    What Are the Choices for Resolving Conflicts?
        Conflicts can be resolved by:
    Avoidance: Pretend that the conflict does not exist or else conceal what one’s true feelings are
    Accommodation: Try to smooth over differences while maintaining superficial harmony
    Authority: Order people to go along
    Compromise: Try to let other people have their way on something else—but try to get them to go along on a specific activity, task, or goal
    Collaboration: Take the time to surface, and work through, others’ concerns in a realistic way
    Can you think of other ways of resolving conflicts?
    解决冲突的方法 有哪些?
    冲突可以通过以下途径得以解决:
    避免:假定冲突并不存在或隐藏人的真实感受
    调和:消除分歧以维持表面的融洽
    权威:命令人们去遵从
    折衷:试着让别人在其它方面按照他们的意思行事—但在特定的活动、任务或目标上,要尽力使他们积极参加进来
    合作:投入时间考虑并顾全他人的现实利益
    您还能想到解决冲突的其它途径吗?
    What Are the Choices for Resolving Conflicts?
        Another way to think about it is this, as expressed by the typical quote associated with the type of conflict:
    Lose/lose conflict: “If I can’t have it, nobody will have it—and I will make their lives miserable”
    Win/lose conflict: “I want to gain at your expense”
    Win/win conflict: “Yes, we have differences. We know that. Let’s find out what those are and try to figure out how we can move ahead so that we will both gain”
    解决冲突的方法 有哪些?
        根据不同的冲突类型,解决冲突的其它途径可用这样的语言表达:
    输掉/输掉冲突:“如果我得不到它,也不会让别人得到它—让别人落得悲惨下场。”
    赢得/输掉冲突:“我就是想把自己的胜利建立在别人的失败上”
    赢得/赢得 冲突:“是的,我们有分歧。我们知道。让我们找出分歧在哪里,如何取得进展,并获得双赢。”
    What Should You Do to Resolve Conflicts?
        If you find yourself in a conflict situation with another, or if you are mediating a conflict between others, consider these steps:
    Clarify the cause of the problem. Ask for clarification. Say something like: “For what reason are you having a problem with this project or intervention?”
    Clarify the goals, since those are often a source of conflict. Say: “Let’s stop and think a moment about what we want out of this project. Let’s make a list of the goals.”
    您应该怎样解决冲突?
        如果您发现自己正处于冲突之中,或正在充当他人冲突的调解人,试考虑下列解决步骤:
     认清问题的原因。可以这样查找原因:“对这个项目或干预措施,您为什么会碰到问题?”
     由于目标经常是冲突的一个来源,可以这样认清目标:“让我们停下来考虑一下:我们想从这个项目中获得什么。让我们把目标列出来。”
    What Should You Do to Resolve Conflicts?
        If you find yourself in a conflict situation with another, or if you are mediating a conflict between others, consider these steps:
    Clarify the personal agenda of others: “What do you think you will gain—or lose—from this project, and for what reason do you feel that way?”
    Ask for ideas about solutions: “If we could change everything so that things were helping you, what would it look like, and what would be doing that we are not doing now?”
    Do you have other ideas or approaches for resolving conflicts?
    您应该怎样解决冲突?
        如果发现自己正和他人处于冲突之中,或正在充当他人冲突的调解人,试考虑下列解决步骤:
     认清他人的个人问题:“您认为您将从这个项目中得到—或失去什么,是什么促使您那样认为?”
    问一问有没有解决的办法:“如果我们能把所有条件都变得有利于您,那又会怎样,而如果我们现在不那样做,又会怎样做呢?”
    您还有解决冲突的其它途径吗?
    Tips for Resolving Conflicts
        If you find yourself in a conflict situation with another, or if you are mediating a conflict between others, consider applying these approaches:
    Anticipate what you want out of the situation
    Demonstrate goodwill up front
    Agree among yourselves
    Believe that you will be fairly treated


    解决冲突的技巧
       如果发现自己正和他人处于冲突之中,或正在充当他人冲突的调解人,试考虑下列解决步骤:
     预计您想从中获得什么
    首先表示善意
    与自己的团队达成一致
    相信您将会受到公正对待
    Tips for Resolving Conflicts
    Step outside yourself to view the situation as the other person might
    Don't assume others understand your point of view
    Be slow to suggest a final offer
    Always show respect
    Recognize your blind spots and your hot buttons
    Always seek to allay the other's fears, even if not directly expressed, before moving to discuss possible solutions
    Describe the longer view of how things will improve after you reach a solution
    Aim humor at yourself
    Remember that no single method is a panacea.
    解决冲突的技巧
    跳出圈外以他人的观点来审视这件事
    不要认为别人已经了解您的观点
    不忙提出最终的提议
    始终表示尊重
    认识您的优势和弱势
    始终尽力减少别人的恐惧感,即使不直接表示,也要在开始讨论可能的解决措施之前做到这一点
    找到一个解决途径后,研究从长远来看该如何改进它
    力图使自己幽默起来
    记住没有哪一个方法是万能药
    A Model to Guide the Work of the Change Leader
    指导变革领导者工作的模型
    Role Play Activity on the Role of the Change Leader
    Divide up into groups of 3 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Devote about 15 minutes to this Activity
    One person should play the part of a WLP professional
    One person should play the part of a manager in an organization
    变革领导者的 角色扮演活动
    按3人为一组,进行分组
    各组指定一位发言人
    活动15分钟
    其中一个人扮演WLP专业人员
    另一个人扮演组织里的管理者
    Role Play Activity on the Role of the Change Leader
    One person should play observer
    The person who plays the WLP professional should prepare to explain and justify the steps needed to play the role of change leader during an intervention
    The person who plays the manager should try to second-guess the project
    The observer should watch what happens in the role play and prepare to debrief what happened in the twosome with the larger group
    变革领导者的 角色扮演活动
    还有一个人扮演旁观者
    扮演WLP专业人员的人应该准备说明,在干预活动扮演变革领导者所需的步骤并论证其正确性。
    扮演管理者的人应该准备对这一项目做一个事后评论
    旁观者要观察在角色扮演中发生的事,并准备把两人间发生的情况向全班汇报
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have the observer for one of the role play groups debrief what he or she observed during the role play?
    活动汇报
    角色扮演组的哪一位旁观者愿意上来,把他/她在角色扮演里观察到的情况汇报给我?
    WLP Roles: The Evaluator
        “Assesses the impact of interventions and provides participants and stakeholders with information about the effectiveness of the intervention implementation” (Rothwell, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).

    What does the Evaluator do?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP) 角色: 评估者
    “评价干预措施的影响,并为参与人和利益相关者提供有关干预措施实施效果的信息。” (罗斯威尔, Sanders & Soper, 1999, p. 43).
     评估者应该做什么?

    Translating the Role of Evaluator
        Think of it like this. The Evaluator:
    Compares the results of the intervention to the intentions or objectives
    Establishes metrics by which to measure success
    Tracks achievement during the intervention
    Assesses results
    解释评估者的角色
        这样看待评估者:
     把干预措施的结果与意图或目标进行比较
    建立衡量成功的标准
    在干预过程中跟踪取得的进展
    评估结果
    Points Worth Emphasizing
        It is worth emphasizing that:
    Evaluation is tied to Analysis, since results can only be determined in relation to the root cause of a performance problem
    The bottom line question is: Did the intervention solve the performance problem?
    Proof exists in the minds of the beholders (stakeholders), not in the minds of WLP professionals
    需要强调的要点
     应该强调:
     既然结果只能由绩效问题的根源来决定,那么,评价就应该与分析相联系
    本质的问题是:干预措施是否解决了绩效问题?
    证明的标准是存在于旁观者(利益相关者)心中,而在不是WLP专业人员的心中
    Thinking About Evaluation Based on What Will Be Evaluated
        Thinking about evaluation has been influenced by the Donald Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation, which has four levels:
    Level 1: Reaction: Did people like the training?
    Level 2: Learning: Did people learn in the training?
    Level 3: Behavior: Did people change their on-the-job behavior as a result of training?
    Level 4: Results: What benefits did the organization gain in bottom-line productivity improvement or in cost savings from the training?
    从评估对象角度 进行评估
        通常用唐纳·柯克帕特里克(Donald Kirkpatrick) 模型来评估,它包括四个层次:
      层次1:反应:大家欢迎这种培训吗?
     层次2:学习:人们在培训中学到知识了吗?
    层次3:行为:培训的结果是不是改变了人们的工作行为?
    层次4:效果:组织生产力有什么重大改进?或节省了哪些成本?
    Activity on Evaluation
    Form groups of 3-5 people
    Devote about 10 minutes to this Activity
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Describe the typical questions you are likely to get about the evaluation of any WLP intervention--and when and why you are likely to get them
    Be prepared to share the list of questions when we come back together as a large group 
    关于评估的活动
    按3-5人一组,进行分组
    活动10分钟
    各组指定一位发言人
    提出对于任何WLP干预评估活动都存在的代表性问题—您何时、为什么会碰到这样的问题?
    重新聚集全班,准备集中讨论这些问题
    Debrief of the Activity on Evaluation
    Would the spokesperson for one group please share what his or her group’s questions are?
    汇报关于评估的活动
    哪位小组发言人愿意把他们/她们小组的问题分享给大家?
    Thinking About Evaluation Based on When Measurement Will Occur
        Evaluation can occur:
    Before the intervention: What were the expectations for change?
    During the intervention: How much are people changing?
    After the intervention: How much did the change occur, and how well did it match up to the expectations for change?
    思考何时制定 评估的衡量标准
    评价可能发生在:
     在干预活动之前:变革的期望目标是什么?
     在干预过程之中:人们会改变多少?
    在干预活动之后:变革的力度有多大?它与变革期望目标的一致程度又如何?
    Kirkpatrick’s Hierarchy of Evaluation Revisited for Both What to Measure and When to Measure
       
    柯克帕特里克的评估层次重新回答了 评估什么、何时评估的问题
       
    Large Group Role Play Activity on Evaluation
    Let’s role play at the front of the room a dialogue between a WLP practitioner and a senior executive such as CEO
    May I have a volunteer?
    The setting is this: you, the WLP practitioner, have been involved with a long-term intervention implementation
    The instructor will play the role of the senior executive, and the volunteer will play the role of the WLP practitioner
    The volunteer should be prepared to respond to the questions given by the Senior Executive
    Let’s carry out the role play now
    关于评估的 全班性角色扮演
    让我们在教室前做一个对话式的角色扮演,一位是WLP实践者,另一位是高层经理诸如CEO
    有志愿者吗?
    情景是这样的:您,作为WLP实践者已经参与了一项长期的干预实施活动
    讲师将扮演高层经理角色,志愿者将扮演WLP实践者角色
    志愿者应该准备回答高层经理的问题
    让我们开始进行角色扮演始角色扮演
    Debrief of the Role Play Activity on Evaluation
    What insights did you have about evaluation during the role play?
    汇报关于评估的角色扮演活动
      您对角色扮演活动中的评估活动有何见解?
    A Model to Guide the Work of the WLP Evaluator
    指导WLP评估者工作的模型
    Part V: How Can Your Training Department Transition to WLP, and Why Might That Be Worthy of Consideration?
    第五部分
    怎样把您的培训部门转变为WLP?为什么这种转变值得考虑?
     What Is One Model That Drives OD?
    OD驱动模型
    Part VI: How Do You Prepare for the Future?
    第六部分: 您该怎样面对未来?
    Activity on Preparing for the Future
    Divide up into small groups of 3-5 people each
    Appoint a spokesperson for your group
    Spend about 15 minutes
    Identify the roles you play now
    Identify WLP roles you think you should be playing in the future, why you think you should be playing them, and how you believe you should prepare to enact them.
    When you finish, your spokesperson should be prepared to report the answers of your group
    关于面对未来而准备的活动
    按3-5人为一组,进行分组
    各组指定一位发言人
    活动15分钟
    现在确定自己要扮演的角色
    确定您将来会扮演的WLP角色,您为什么认为自己会承担这种角色?您认为应该怎样为承担这种角色做好准备?
    小组活动完以后,各组的发言人应该准备报告本组的答案
            Activity Debrief
    Could I have spokespersons for each group report on their groups’ answers?
    活动汇报 ·各组的发言人能汇报一下 本组的答案吗?
    Part VII: How Can You Assess Your Competencies in WLP and Build Them?
    第七部分: 您怎样评估您的WLP能力? 如何培养这些能力?
    Assess Your Competencies
    Divide up into groups of 2
    Spend about 20 minutes to assess yourself against the competencies required for success in WLP
    Discuss how you rated yourself with the other person on your “team” of 2
    Be prepared to discuss your ratings in the large group
    能力评估
    按2人一组,进行分组
    花20分钟,根据WLP工作成功的必要能力,评估自己
    在两人小组中讨论,自评与互评的得分情况
    准备全班讨论您的评分
    Part VIII: How Can You Apply What You Learned to Evaluating Employee Performance, Making Compensation Decisions, and Planning for the Next Year’s HRD/WLP Efforts?
    第八部分: 怎样把您学到的知识运用到员工绩效评估、薪酬决策和来年的HRD/WLP的工作规划中?
    How Do You Apply What You Learned to Evaluating Employee Performance?
    What thoughts do you have about how to apply what you have learned in this Workshop to evaluating employee performance?
    怎样把您学到的知识运用到员工绩效评估中?
    关于这个问题,您的想法或打算是什么?
    How Do You Apply What You Learned to Making Compensation Decisions?
    What thoughts do you have about how to apply what you have learned in this Workshop to making compensation decisions?
    怎样把您在培训班学到的知识运用到薪酬决策中?
    关于这个问题,您的想法或
      打算是什么?
    How Do You Apply What You Learned to Planning for the Next Year’s HRD/WLP Efforts?
    What thoughts do you have about how to apply what you have learned in this Workshop to planning for next year’s HRD/WLP efforts?
    怎样把您在培训班学到的知识运用到来年的HRD/WLP的工作规划中?
    关于这个问题,您的想法或打算是什么?
    Part IX: Conclusion
    第七部分: 结论
    Purpose of the Session
        Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP) is the latest generation of the field once called Human Resource Development (HRD) and, before that, Training and Development (T & D). How can you understand the field, the roles carried out by WLP practitioners, the competencies that are associated with successful performance in WLP now and in the future, and build your competencies as the WLP field changes in response to trends unfolding now? How might you apply this knowledge to year-end performance evaluation, compensation programs, and planning for the following year's HRD efforts? Use this two-day Workshop to build your competence as a WLP practitioner.
    本期培训的目的
    “职场学习与绩效(WLP)” 是曾经被称为“人力资源开发(HRD)”,之前曾被称作“培训与发展(T&D)”的这一领域发展的最新阶段。您怎样理解这一领域?您怎样理解这一领域?怎样理解WLP从业者所扮演的角色?怎样了解现在及将来都与WLP优良绩效有关的能力?在WLP领域的时代,怎样根据当今的趋势来增强自己的能力?您怎样把这些知识运用到年终的绩效考核、薪酬计划中及来年的人力资源开发工作中?通过这两天的培训,将会培养您作为一名WLP从业者的能力。

    What Will You Take Away from the Session?
        You should now be able to answer the following questions:
    What is Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP), and how does it compare to Training and Development, Human Resource Development, and Human Performance Improvement/Performance Consulting?
    What are the roles of the WLP practitioner, and why are these important for you to know about?
    您将从本期培训中 学到什么?
    现在,您应该能够回答下列问题:
    什么是职场学习与绩效(WLP)?如何区分培训与发展(T&D)、人力资源开发(HRD)、员工绩效提升(HPI)与绩效咨询(HPC)等概念?
    职场学习与绩效(WLP)从业者的角色是什么?为什么了解它对您很重要?
    What Will You Take Away from the Session?
    What are competencies, and what competencies must the WLP practitioner demonstrate to be successful in today's dynamic work settings?
    What are outputs, and how does the WLP practitioner demonstrate these outputs to be successful?
    How can your organization's training department transition to become a WLP department, and why that might be worthy of consideration?
    What are your competencies in WLP, and how can you devise a professional development plan to build your competence as a WLP practitioner?
    您将从本期培训中 学到什么?
    什么是WLP能力?要在当今动态的工作环境中取得成功,WLP从业者必须具备什么样的能力?
    WLP的产出是什么?WLP从业者如何阐明这些产出是成功有效的?
    怎样把您组织培训部门转变为一个职场学习与绩效(WLP)部门?为什么这种转变值得考虑?
    您在WLP方面的能力如何?为了增强自己作为WLP从业者的能力,您怎样来设计自己的职业发展计划?

    What You Will Be Able to Do
        You should now be able to:
    Explain how WLP is different from HRD, and why this difference is important
    Analyze human performance problems and identify root cause(s)
    Identify a range of possible interventions to close performance gaps and thereby address the underlying cause(s) of human performance problems
    您将能够做什么?
      现在,您应该能够进行下列工作:
    阐明WLP和人力资源开发(HRD)的区别,并说明这样区别的重要意义
    分析员工绩效问题并识别其根源
    确认为缩小这种绩效差距而可能采取的干预措施,由此探寻员工绩效问题潜在的深层次原因
    What You Will Be Able to Do
    Select one or more interventions that are most appropriate for closing performance gaps
    Implement interventions successfully, using proven methods of project management and change management
    Evaluate the financial and nonfinancial results of an intervention
    Review ways to apply new-found knowledge about WLP to year-end employee performance evaluations, compensation decisions, and planning for the following year's HRD/WLP efforts.
    您将能够做什么
    选择最适合缩小绩效差距的一种以上干预措施
    利用已经过验证的项目管理和变革管理方法,顺利实施干预措施
    评价干预措施的财务和非财务成果
    评价将新发现的WLP知识运用于年终的员工绩效评估、薪酬决策及来年HRD/WLP工作的方法

    Final Questions & Answers
    What final questions and answers do you have?
    最后的问题与回答
    您最后还有什么问题及回答吗?

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